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Progress in Medical Sciences ISSN: 2577 - 2996

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Progress in Medical Sciences. 2021; 5(2):(71-109)

Effects of Methanol Fraction of Anarcardium Occidentale (Cashew) Bark Extract on Salt- Induced Hypertension in Rats

Blessing O Omolaso, Victor Emojevwe* and Bolanle Zeenat Ajao

Background: Hypertension is an important public health problem that needs multiple treatment approach. Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) on the other hand is a plant largely used locally in for treatment of various ailments. The present study therefore assessed the antihypertensive effects of methanol extract of Anacardium occidentale (AO) root back on cardiovascular parameters in high salt fed Wistar rats 

Methods: Twelve (12) male weaning Wistar rats (40-60g) were randomly divided into four groups (n=3). Group A and B were placed on a normal salt diet while Group C and D were placed on a high salt diet for ten (10) weeks. Carotid artery was then isolated, canulated and connected to a SP844 physiological pressure transducer attached to a PowerLab 8SP unit for blood pressure measurement. AO bark extract (0.1mg/ml) was then administered intravenously in different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10, 100 μg/ml) through the jugular vein in 0.1ml/dose to Group A and C while Nifedipine was administered in different concentrations (0.04, 0.4, 4.0, and 40, 200 μg/ml) to groups B and D. The data were analyzed using unpaired-student t test and non-linear regression curve were generated using Graphpad-prism version 8 at 95% confidence interval 
Results: SBP, DBP, HR and MAP (141.06±4.27, 109.99±4.26, 398±13.25, 120.35±4.25 were significantly higher in HS animals than the NS animals (103.69±11.56, 79.34±4.07, 354±66.96, 77.07±8.17) respectively. Nifedipine was able to reduce DBP and MAP were reduced in a dose dependent faction while AO bark extract reduced all blood pressure parameters in dose dependent faction in HS and NS animals 
Conclusion: We therefore concluded that Anacardium occidentale bark extract was able to reduce blood pressure parameters in a dose-dependent manner than nifedipine in this study