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Progress in Medical Sciences ISSN: 2577 - 2996
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Progress in Medical Sciences. 2023; 7(5):(99-112)


Epigenetic Aberrancies as the Exclusive Driver of Oncogenic Amplifications

M Nezami*, Steven Hager DO and Aryan Chaychian

Abstract
Three genetic mechanisms, including mutations, gene amplification, and chromosome rearrangements, have been recognized as drivers of oncogene activation in human neoplasms. These mechanisms result in either an alteration of protooncogene structure or an increase in protooncogene expression. While the role of epigenetic aberrancies in carcinogenesis has been previously described, the biological implications of epigenetic therapies for cancer prevention and the underlying mechanisms remain a mystery to clinicians. Moreover, there is a lack of biomarkers to track the steps of carcinogenesis before cancer develops, leading to a deficiency in proactive and preventive measures. All recommendations in preventive oncology are either incomplete, blindly made, or via screening methods which are only able to detect cancer after it has already initiated. In this article, we present a novel approach that bridges the gap between clinical findings and research, generating advanced hypotheses on the development of cancer. 


We explore the relationship between the host and tumor cells, highlighting the role of specific cancer stem cell pathways and proposing the use of multi-targeted epigenetic therapies and off- label medications to inhibit tumor initiators. By considering this complex biological network, we believe that the treatment of cancer can be revolutionized. Additionally, we discuss the novel idea of epigenetic abnormalities as the main cause of tumor oncogenic amplifications, shedding light on the promise of epigenetic therapies to reverse and treat these aberrancies.